The conquered countries   
201-129 B.C.

200-197 B.C.

Second macedonian war

Philip V of Macedon
Philip V of Macedon

While the Romans were engaged with Hannibal, they carried on also a vigorous war against Philip, king of Macedonia. The Rhodians, with Attalus, king of Pergamus, also entered into the confederation against Philip. He was defeated by the consul, who was sent against him and besieged Athens, but the Romans obliged him to raise the siege.

He attempted to take possession of Thermopylae, but was driven thence by Quintus Flaminius, with great slaughter. He then sought refuge in Thessaly, where he was again defeated, with considerable loss, and obliged to beg a peace, upon condition of paying a thousand talents, half at that time, and the other half in the space of ten years. The peace with Philip, gave the Romans an opportunity of showing their generosity, by restoring liberty to Greece (198 B.C.).

223-189 B.C.


Antiochus III
Antiochus III
From the 1889 edition of Principal Coins of the Ancients

Antiochus, king of Syria, was next brought to submit to the Roman arms; a war was declared against him five years after the conclusion of the Macedonian war.

He attempted to obtain a peace by offering to quit all his places in Europe, and such in Asia as professed alliance to Rome. But it was now too late. Scipio, perceiving his own superiority, was resolved to avail himself of it. Antiochus thus driven into resistance, was forced to draw out his men, to the number of 70000 foot, and 20000 horse. Scipio opposed him with men as much inferior in numbers, as they were superior in courage and discipline.

Antiochus was defeated; his own chariot, armed with scythes, being driven back upon his men, contributed much to his overthrow. Being thus reduced to the last extremity, he was glad to procure peace of the Romans upon their own terms; which were, to pay fifteen thousand talents towards the expenses of the war, to quit all his possessions in Europe, and all in Asia on that side of Mount Tauris, to give twenty hostages as pledges of his fidelity, and to deliver up Hannibal, the inveterate enemy of Rome.

In the mean time, Hannibal, whose destruction was one of the articles of this extorted treaty, endeavored to avoid the threatened ruin. This consummate general, had been long a wanderer, and an exile from his ungrateful country. He had taken refuge at the court of Antiochus, who at first gave him a sincere welcome, and made him admiral of his fleet, in which station he showed his usual skill in stratagem.

But he soon sunk in the Syrians esteem, and after wandering for a time among petty states, he took refuge at the court of Prusias king of Bithynia.

In the mean time the Romans sent AEmilius, one of their most celebrated generals, to demand him of this king, who fearing the resentment of Rome, and willing to conciliate their friendship by this breach of hospitality, ordered a guard to be placed upon Hannibal, with an intent to deliver him up.

The poor old general, thus persecuted from one country to another, and finding all methods of safety cut off, determined to die; he therefore desired one of his followers to bring him poison, which he had ready for this exigence, and drinking it, he expired as he had lived, with intrepid bravery (183 B.C.).

172-168 B.C.

Third macedonian war

A third Macedonian war was soon after proclaimed against Perseus, the son of Philip. Perseus, in order to secure the crown, had contrived to murder his brother, Demetrius, and, upon the death of his father, pleased with the hopes of imaginary triumphs, made war against Rome.

During the course of this war which continued about three years, many opportunities were offered him of cutting off the Roman army; but being perfectly ignorant how to take advantage of their rashness, he spent the time in empty overtures for peace. At length, AEmilius gave him a decisive overthrow near the river Enipeus. He attempted to procure safety by flying into Crete; but being abandoned by all, he was obliged to surrender himself, and to grace the splendid triumph of the Roman general.

160-146 B.C.

The third punic war

Le forum
Scipio AEmilius
in front of the ruins of Carthage

Jacobus Buys, 1797, Museum d'Amsterdam

Masinissa, the Numidian, having made some incursions into a territory claimed by the Carthaginians, they attempted to repel the invasion. This brought on a war with that monarch; while the Romans, who pretended to consider this conduct of the Carthaginians as an in fraction of the treaty, sent to make a complaint. The ambassador finding the city very flourishing from the long interval of peace, insisted on the necessity of a war, which was soon proclaimed; and the consul set out with a resolution utterly to demolish Carthage.

The wretched Carthaginians, finding that the conquerors would not desist from making demands while they had anything left to give, attempted to soften the victors by submission, but they received orders to leave their city, which was to be levelled to the ground. This severe command they received with great concern and distress, and implored for a respite from such a hard sentence; they used tears and lamentations, but finding the consuls inexorable, they prepared to suffer the greatest extremities, and to fight for their seat of empire.

Those vessels of gold and silver in which their luxury had taken such pride, were converted into arms. The two men parted with their ornaments, and even cut off their hair, to be converted into strings for the bowmen. Asdrubal who had lately been condemned for opposing the Romans, was now taken from prison to head their army; and such preparations were made, that, when the consuls came before the city, which they expected to find an easy conquest, they met with a resistance that dispirited their forces, and shook their resolution.

Several engagements were fought before the walls with disadvantage to the assailants; so that the siege would have been discontinued, had not Scipio AEmilius, the adopted son of Africanus, who was now appointed to command it, used as much skill to save his forces after a defeat, as to inspire them with fresh hopes of victory. But all would have failed, had he not found means to seduce Pharneas the master of the Carthaginian horse, who came over to his side.

The unhappy townsmen soon saw the enemy make nearer approaches; the wall which led to the haven was quickly demolished, and the Forum taken, which presented to the conquerors a deplorable spectacle of houses falling, heaps of men lying dead, hundreds of the wounded struggling to emerge from the carnage, and deploring their own and their country's ruin.

The citadel soon surrendered. All but the temple was subdued, which was defended by deserters from the Roman army, and those who had been most forward to undertake the war. These expecting no mercy, and finding their condition desperate, set fire to the building, and voluntarily perished in the flames. This was the end of one of the most renowned cities in the world, both for arts, opulence, and extent of dominions; it had rivalled Rome for above a hundred years, and at one time was thought to have the superiority (146 B.C.).

This conquest over Carthage was soon followed by many over other states. Corinth, one of the noblest cities in Greece, in the same year sustained the same fate, being entered by Mummius, the consul, and levelled to the ground. Scipio also having laid siege to Numantia, the strongest city in Spain : the wretched inhabitants, to avoid falling into the hands of the enemy, fired the city over their own heads, and all to a man expired in the flames. Spain, thus became a province of Rome, and was governed thenceforward by two annual praetors.

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